Combinations of natural or synthetic scaffold delivery platforms, bone grafting materials, and bioactive molecules such as bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) form the current paradigm in advanced bone regeneration technologies. However, the use of BMPs, especially in higher doses, has been associated with reports of heterotopic bone formation, increased inflammation, osteolysis, and possible increased cancer risk. Recognition of this problem has lead several laboratories, including ours, to develop advanced spatiotemporal delivery strategies that effectively regenerate bone using lower and therefore potentially safer doses of BMP. In pediatric patients, BMP delivery is used to regenerate large bone defects resulting from injury, tumor resection, or congenital deformity. However, no data are available on appropriate BMP doses in younger individuals. The objective of this seed project is to use our well established preclinical model to test the effects of BMP dose and delivery method on bone regeneration and inflammation in juvenile animals.